His lifestyle was in stark contrast to that of the Ivy League men the CIA normally recruited. He was so excited about it he took a job in the hospital and began stealing the LSD to give it to his friends. ''He was willing to try anything to discover something.''. In 1951, Dulles hired a chemist to design and oversee a systematic search for the key to mind control. Author Robert F. ONeill reconsiders three overlooked 1863 cavalry clashes. Gottlieb summoned the team to a retreat and arranged for Olson to be drugged with LSD. After meeting with CIA Director Richard Helms, he reluctantly agreed that he had no choice. Nanci Gottlieb, Susan and (son-in-law) Jeff Bernstein and adored grandsons . And in the context of the time, who would argue? That became the basis for "One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest." From mid-1959 to mid-1960, protesters convened once a week at the gate. While CIA scientists and their former Nazi comrades sat before a stone fireplace discussing the techniques of mind control, prisoners in basement cells were being prepared as subjects in brutal and sometimes fatal experiments. . Do you know what a self-contained, off-the-shelf operation means? one of them asked years later. If Castro became disoriented and incoherent during one of those speeches, he would presumably lose popular support. This is FRESH AIR. One batch, a supremely potent shellfish poison known as saxitoxin, escaped destruction, though. One was handed to the pilot of the first U-2 mission as he prepared to take off from an American base at Wiesbaden, Germany, on June 20, 1956. awarded Mr. Gottlieb the Distinguished Intelligence Medal and deliberately destroyed most of the MKUltra records in 1973. His lawyer had arranged for him to be granted immunity from prosecution for his testimony. After reading it, according to the official note taker, Eisenhower turned to Dulles and said something to the effect that Lumumba should be eliminated., There was stunned silence for about 15 seconds, the note taker wrote, and the meeting continued.. Second, CIA officers in Europe and Asia were capturing enemy agents and others who they felt might be suspected persons or otherwise, what they called expendable. Senior officers at the CIA liked the idea. Later on, when the CIA became obsessed at the order of the White House in killing Fidel Castro, it was Sidney Gottlieb who made all the poison pills, the poison potions, even the poison wet suit that was supposed to be given to Castro. Im Joe from Paris, he said. They were testing psychochemicals and running experiments in my labs and werent telling me.. They may have died without knowing they were part of the CIAs highly secretive program to develop ways to control mindsa program based out of a little-known Army base with a dark past, Fort Detrick. He is the longtime editor of two scholarly journals, the Hitchcock Annual (Columbia University Press; coedited with Richard Allen) and the George Herbert Journal.His edited books include Hitchcock on Hitchcock (Univ. (SOUNDBITE OF AVISHAI COHEN'S "GBEDE TEMIN"). , By 1955 Project MK-ULTRA had outgrown its government funding. By now, Gottlieb and his partners at Fort Detrick had a suicide tool hidden inside a hollowed silver dollar. Embassy and station believe Congo experiencing classic Communist effort takeover government, Devlin wrote. Devlin later recalled lighting a cigarette and staring at his shoes. This assured protection and encouragement for all of Gottlieb's future mind-control projects from the highest levels of the U.S. government. For this uniquely qualified chemist, preparing a dose for Lumumba would be simple. That testimony constitutes the most detailed analysis of one of Gottliebs tools ever made public. Glickman was an American artist living in Paris in 1952, when he joined a group of fellow Americans at a caf, among them was Sidney Gottlieb. Gottlieb could provide it. Cleaving to old habits of secrecy, his wife declined to disclose the cause of Mr. Gottlieb's death. Mr. Gottlieb joined the C.I.A. So he was kind of a proto hippie. of California Press), Framing Hitchcock (Wayne State University Press; coedited with Chris . He himself used LSD, by his own estimate, about at least 200 times. Eric, Nils and Alice, now recovered from alcoholism, tracked down Sidney Gottlieb in his ecologically correct home in Culpeper, Va., where the retired spymaster was raising goats, eating yogurt. The first was the show trial of the Roman Catholic Primate of Hungary Joseph Cardinal Mindszenty for treason in 1949. After seven years in a CIA safe, one was removed for testing. He knew Dulles, now the Director of Central Intelligence under President Eisenhower, would approve anything he wanted to do, and this increased his ambitions. He also experimented on unwitting people in prisons and detention centers in Japan, Germany, and the Philippines. GROSS: Let me reintroduce you here. He spied on musicians and entrapped them, including Billie Holiday, and Billie Holiday being busted was a turning point in her career because she couldn't get a cabaret license. So how high does it fly, really? Together, those sources reveal Detricks central role in MK-ULTRA and in the manufacture of poisons intended to kill foreign leaders. Powers was flying over what is now the Russian city of Yekaterinburg when the exploding missile rocked his plane. The coercive use of toxins was a new field, and chemists at the Special Operations Division had to decide how to begin their research. One of Kinzer's previous books was about the Dulles brothers, Allen and John Foster Dulles. Yet nobody looked over his shoulder. No one knew the CIA was making poisons there, but its role as the countrys principal center for research into biological and anti-crop warfare became clear. Their first idea was to taint cigars that operations officers would deliver to Castro. A son of immigrant Jews, he had been born with club feet. That led him to Roselli, who along with other powerful gangsters had become rich through gambling, prostitution, and drug dealing in Cuba. At one point, he came up with the idea of using a spray can full of LSD to pollute the studio in which Fidel Castro was going to give a radio speech, and then presumably, Castro would become disoriented and, as you say, lose popularity and fall from power. Inside the dollar was what appeared to be an ordinary straight pin, Francis Gary Powers later wrote. That secrecy was partially shattered by the Church Committee, a committee - it was a Senate committee from the 1970s that was chaired by Democratic Senator Frank Church. Four possible approaches were considered: (1) something highly toxic, such as shellfish poison to be administered with a pin (which Technical Services Division head Cornelius Roosevelt said was what was supplied to Gary Powers); (2) bacterial material in liquid form; (3) bacterial treatment of a cigarette or cigar; and (4) a handkerchief treated with bacteria, stated the official summary of a later interview with Roosevelt. The man he chose, Sidney Gottlieb, was not part of the silver-spoon aristocracy from which most officers of the early CIA were recruited, but a 33-year-old Jew from an immigrant family who limped and stuttered. For this reason he was supplied with a special needle. Eisenhower left office in January 1961 but anti-Castro plotting went on. He had spent years assembling this deadly pharmacopeia and did not want to destroy it. They were invisible, untraceable and, if intelligently selected and delivered, not even liable to create a suspicion of foul play. To cover up the tracks of the crime, the pilot was told that he must not be taken alive by Soviet authorities, Khrushchev told his comrades. On July 5, U-2 driver Carmine Vito took off at dawn from Wiesbaden. So Sidney Gottlieb's MKUltra program was ended in the early 1960s. With the stuff thats in there, no one will ever be able to know that Lumumba was assassinated., Gottlieb coolly explained to Devlin what was in the poison kit and how to use it. We were fed a lot of books and movies about the idea of mind control, that you could hypnotize someone or give someone a drug that would make them do something that otherwise they would never do. So they hired the Nazi doctors who had been involved in that project to advise them. At this point Subproject 27 (basic research of LSD) was a funding subproject that combined previous subprojects, including payment to Sandoz Pharmaceuticals for LSD, John Mulholland's The Official CIA Manual of Trickery and Deception (subproject 15 magic support, Mulholland Supplement), and further procurement of LSD (subproject 18), but it grew to almost 150 documented subprojects, including a microwave gun and the search for alternatives to LSD, which led to later programs like Project MKCHICKWIT, most of which focused on South America. He became the only CIA officer known to have carried poison to a foreign country in order to kill that countrys leader. Everything was very slapdash and haphazard, so not surprisingly, no serious results ever came out of this, except the fact that we can now sit here and talk about the fact that our tax dollars were used to pay for a bordello run by the CIA in San Francisco to which unwitting men were brought, fed LSD and used as experiments in Sidney Gottlieb's campaign to try to figure out how to penetrate the human mind so it could be controlled in the interests of the United States government and its covert projects around the world. Gottlieb surreptitiously slipped LSD into Glickman's drink; it derailed his life. He stuttered. Bissell told Gottlieb that, pursuant to an order from the highest authority, he was to prepare an incapacitating or fatal potion that could be fed to an African leader. In all, the agency conducted 149 separate mind-control experiments, and as many as 25 involved unwitting subjects. This assassination had been ordered by the president of the United States. No. He had sort of a check off from his titular boss and from his real boss, Richard Helms, and from the CIA director, Allen Dulles. It had retained 94 percent of its toxicity. His imagination was just as fertile when he was inventing spy tools for CIA officers as it had been earlier when he was trying to devise ways of finding mind control techniques. The agent Devlin hired proved unable to penetrate the rings of security protecting Lumumba. He obtained a Ph.D. at California Institute of Technology in 1943. Our guest, journalist Stephen Kinzer, has spent several years investigating the CIA's mind control program, which was known as MKUltra. CIA deputy director for plans Richard Bissell, who ran the U-2 project, believed that since his planes would fly at improbably high altitudes, Soviet air defense systems would not be able to shoot them down or even track them by radar. , Gottlieb was born to Hungarian Jewish immigrant parents Fanny and Louis Gottlieb in the Bronx on August 3, 1918. As he fell, his thoughts turned to the suicide pin he was carrying. Two years in Germany, where he had conducted extreme experiments on subjects considered expendables, had strengthened his credentials.